Fino reference sheet

Note that Fino works on top of wasora, so you should also check the wasora reference sheet also—not to mention the wasora RealBook. See Fino in action at the Fino case files.

1 Fino keywords


Performs stress linearization according to ASME VII-Sec 5 over a Stress Classification Line

FINO_LINEARIZE { PHYSICAL_GROUP <physical_group> | START_POINT <x1> <y1> <z1> END_POINT <x2> <y2> <z2> }
 [ FILE <file_id> | FILE_PATH <file_path> ]
 [ TOTAL { vonmises tresca | tresca | principal1 | principal2 | principal3 }
 [ M <variable> ]
 [ MB <variable> ]
 [ PEAK <variable> ]

The Stress Classification Line (SCL) may be given either as a one-dimensional physical group in the mesh or as the (continuous) spatial coordinates of two end-points. If the SCL is given as a PHYSICAL_GROUP, the entity should be one-dimensional (i.e a line) independently of the dimension of the problem. If the SCL is given with START_POINT and END_POINT, the number of coordinates given should match the problem dimension (i.e three coordinates for full 3D problems and two coordinates for axisymmetric or plane problems). Coordinates can be given algebraic expressions that will be evaluated at the time of the linearization. If either a FILE or a FILE_PATH is given, the total, membrane and membrane plus bending stresses are written as a function of a scalar t \in [0,1]. Moreover, the individual elements of the membrane and bending stress tensors are written within comments (i.e. lines starting with the hash symbol #). By default, the linearization uses the Von Mises criterion for the composition of stresses. The definition of what total stress means can be changed using the TOTAL keyword. The membrane, bending and peak stress tensor elements are combined using the Von Mises criterion and stored as variables. If no name for any of the variables is given, they are stored in M_group, B_group and P_group respectively if there is a physical group. Otherwise M_1, B_1 and P_1 for the first instruction, M_2… etc.


Sets the problem type that Fino has to solve.

FINO_PROBLEM [ mechanical | thermal | modal ]
 [ DIMENSIONS <expr> ] [ MESH <identifier> ] 
 [ N_MODES <expr> ] 
  • mechanical (or elastic or break, default) solves the mechanical elastic problem (default).
  • thermal (or heat or bake) solves the heat conduction problem.
  • modal (or shake) computes the natural frequencies and oscillation modes.

If the AXISYMMETRIC keyword is given, the mesh is expected to be two-dimensional in the x-y plane and the problem is assumed to be axi-symmetric around the axis given by SYMMETRY_AXIS (default is y). If the problem type is mechanical and the mesh is two-dimensional on the x-y plane and no axisymmetry is given, either PLANE_STRESS and PLAIN_STRAIN can be provided (default is plane stress). By default Fino tries to detect wheter the computation should be linear or non-linear. An explicit mode can be set with either LINEAR on NON_LINEAR. The number of spatial dimensions of the problem needs to be given either with the keyword DIMENSIONS or by defining a MESH (with an explicit DIMENSIONS keyword) before FINO_PROBLEM. If there are more than one MESHes define, the one over which the problem is to be solved can be defined by giving the explicit mesh name with MESH. By default, the first mesh to be defined in the input file is the one over which the problem is solved. The number of modes to be computed in the modal problem. The default is DEFAULT_NMODES.


Computes the reaction at the selected physical group.

FINO_REACTION PHYSICAL_GROUP <physical_group> RESULT { <variable> | <vector> }

The result is stored in the variable or vector provided, depending on the number of degrees of freedoms of the problem. If the object passed as RESULT does not exist, an appropriate object (scalar variable or vector) is created. For the elastic problem, the components of the total reaction force are stored in the result vector. For the thermal problem, the total power passing through the entity is computed as an scalar.


Sets options related to the solver and the computation of gradients.

 [ PC_TYPE { gamg | mumps | lu | hypre | sor | bjacobi | cholesky | ... } ]
 [ KSP_TYPE { gmres | mumps | bcgs | bicg | richardson | chebyshev | ... } ]
 [ TS_TYPE { bdf | arkimex | rosw | glle | beuler | ... } ]
 [ SNES_TYPE { newtonls | newtontr | nrichardson | ngmres | qn | ngs | ... } ]
 [ GRADIENT { gauss | nodes | none } ]
 [ GRADIENT_HIGHER { average | nodes } ]
 [ SMOOTH { always | never | material } ]
 [ ELEMENT_WEIGHT { volume_times_quality | volume | quality | flat } ]

If the keyword PROGRESS_ASCII is given, three ASCII lines will show in the terminal the progress of the ensamble of the stiffness matrix (or matrices), the solution of the system of equations and the computation of gradients (stresses). The preconditioner, linear and non-linear solver might be any of those available in PETSc:

If either PC_TYPE or KSP_TYPE is set to mumps (and PETSc is compiled with MUMPS support) then this direct solver is used. For the mechanical problem, the default is to use GAMG as the preconditioner and PETSc’s default solver (GMRES). For the thermal problem, the default is to use the default PETSc settings. For the modal problem, the default is to use the default SLEPc settings. The GRADIENT keyword controls how the derivatives (i.e. strains) at the first-order nodes are to be computed out of the primary unknowns (i.e. displacements).

  • gauss (default) computes the derivatives at the gauss points and the extrapolates the values to the nodes
  • nodes computes the derivatives direcetly at the nodes
  • none does not compute any derivative at all

The way derivatives are computed at high-order nodes (i.e. those at the middle of edges or faces) is controlled with GRADIENT_HIGHER:

  • average (default) assigns the plain average of the first-order nodes that surrond each high-order node
  • none computes the derivatives at the location of the high-order nodes

The keyword SMOOTH controls how the gradient-based functions (i.e. strains, stresses, etc) are smoothed—or not—to obtain nodal values out of data which primarily comes from element-wise evaluations at the Gauss points.

  • always (default) computes a single value for each node by averaging the contributions of individual elements.
  • never keeps the contribution of each individual element separate. This option implies that the output mesh is different from the input mesh as each element now has a “copy” of the original shared nodes.
  • material averages element contribution only for those elements that belong to the same material (i.e. physical group). As with never, a new output mesh is created where the nodes are duplicated even for those elements which belong to the same physical group.

The way individual contributions of different elements to the same node are averaged is controlled by ELEMENT_WEIGHT:

  • volume_times_quality (default) weights each element by the product of its volume times its quality
  • volume weights each element by the its volume
  • quality weights each element by the its quality
  • flat performs plain averages (i.e. the same weight for all elements)


Ask Fino to solve the problem and advance one step.


The location of the FINO_STEP keyword within the input file marks the logical location where the problem is solved and the result functions (displacements, temperatures, stresses, etc.) are available for output or further computation.

2 Mesh keywords


MATERIAL <name> [ MESH <name> ] [ PHYSICAL_GROUP <name_1> [ PHYSICAL_GROUP <name_2> [ ... ] ] ] [ <property_name_1> <expr_1> [ <property_name_2> <expr_2> [ ... ] ] ]

2.2 MESH

Reads an unstructured mesh from an external file in MSH, VTK or FRD format.

MESH [ NAME <name> ] { FILE <file_id> | FILE_PATH <file_path> } [ DIMENSIONS <num_expr> ]
 [ SCALE <expr> ] [ OFFSET <expr_x> <expr_y> <expr_z> ]
 [ READ_SCALAR <name_in_mesh> AS <function_name> ] [...]
 [ READ_FUNCTION <function_name> ] [...]

If there will be only one mesh in the input file, the NAME is optional. Yet it might be needed in cases where there are many meshes and one needs to refer to a particular mesh, such as in MESH_POST or MESH_INTEGRATE. When solving PDEs (such as in Fino or milonga), the first mesh is the problem mesh. Either a file identifier (defined previously with a FILE keyword) or a file path should be given. The format is read from the extension, which should be either

Note than only MSH is suitable for defining PDE domains, as it is the only one that provides information about physical groups. The spatial dimensions should be given with DIMENSION. If material properties are uniform and given with variables, the dimensions are not needed and will be read from the file. But if spatial functions are needed (either for properties or read from the mesh file), an explicit value for the mesh dimensions is needed. If either SCALE or OFFSET are given, the node position if first shifted and then scaled by the provided amounts. For each READ_SCALAR keyword, a point-wise defined function of space named <function_name> is defined and filled with the scalar data named <name_in_mesh> contained in the mesh file. The READ_FUNCTION keyword is a shortcut when the scalar name and the to-be-defined function are the same. If no NAME is given, the first mesh to be defined is called first.


Fills the elements of a vector with data evaluated at the nodes or the cells of a mesh.

MESH_FILL_VECTOR VECTOR <vector> { FUNCTION <function> | EXPRESSION <expr> } 
 [ MESH <name> ] [ NODES | CELLS ]

The vector to be filled needs to be already defined and to have the appropriate size, either the number of nodes or cells of the mesh depending on NODES or CELLS (default is nodes). The elements of the vectors will be either the FUNCTION or the EXPRESSION of x, y and z evaluated at the nodes or cells of the provided mesh. If there is more than one mesh, the name has to be given.


Finds absolute extrema of a function or expression within a mesh-based domain.

 [ MESH <name> ] [ OVER <physical_group_name> ] [ NODES | CELLS ]
 [ MIN <variable> ] [ MAX <variable> ]
 [ X_MIN <variable> ] [ Y_MIN <variable> ] [ Z_MIN <variable> ] [ I_MIN <variable> ]
 [ X_MAX <variable> ] [ Y_MAX <variable> ] [ Z_MAX <variable> ] [ I_MAX <variable> ]

Either a FUNCTION or an EXPRESSION should be given. In the first case, just the function name is expected (i.e. not its arguments). In the second case, a full algebraic expression including the arguments is expected. If no explicit mesh is provided, the main mesh is used to search for the extrema. If the OVER keyword is given, the search is performed only on the provided physical group. Depending on the problem type, it might be needed to switch from NODES to CELLS but this is usually not needed. If given, the minimum (maximum) value is stored in the variable provided by the MIN (MAX) keyword. If given, the x (or y or z) coordinate of the minimum (maximum) value is stored in the variable provided by the X_MIN (or Y_MIN or Z_MIN) (X_MAX, Y_MAX, Z_MAX) keyword. If given, the index of the minimum (maximum) value (i.e. the node or cell number) is stored in the variable provided by the I_MIN (I_MAX) keyword.


Performs a spatial integration of a function or expression over a mesh.

 [ MESH <mesh_identifier> ] [ OVER <physical_group> ] [ NODES | CELLS ]
 RESULT <variable>

The integrand may be either a FUNCTION or an EXPRESSION. In the first case, just the function name is expected (i.e. not its arguments). In the second case, a full algebraic expression including the arguments is expected. If the expression is just 1 then the volume (or area or length) of the domain is computed. Note that arguments ought to be x, y and/or z. If there are more than one mesh defined, an explicit one has to be given with MESH. By default the integration is performed over the highest-dimensional elements of the mesh. If the integration is to be carried out over just a physical group, it has to be given in OVER. Either NODES or CELLS define how the integration is to be performed. In the first case a the integration is performed using the Gauss points and weights associated to each element type. In the second case, the integral is computed as the sum of the product of the function evaluated at the center of each cell (element) and the cell’s volume. The scalar result of the integration is stored in the variable given by RESULT. If the variable does not exist, it is created.


MESH_MAIN [ <name> ]


MESH_POST [ MESH <mesh_identifier> ] { FILE <name> | FILE_PATH <file_path> } [ NO_MESH ] [ FORMAT { gmsh | vtk } ] [ CELLS | ] NODES ] [ NO_PHYSICAL_NAMES ] [ VECTOR <function1_x> <function1_y> <function1_z> ] [...] [ <scalar_function_1> ] [ <scalar_function_2> ] ...


Defines a physical group of elements within a mesh file.

PHYSICAL_GROUP <name> [ MESH <name> ] [ DIMENSION <expr> ]
 [ MATERIAL <name> ]
 [ BC <bc_1> <bc_2> ... ]

A name is mandatory for each physical group defined within the input file. If there is no physical group with the provided name in the mesh, this instruction makes no effect. If there are many meshes, an explicit mesh can be given with MESH. Otherwise, the physical group is defined on the main mesh. An explicit dimension of the physical group can be provided with DIMENSION. For volumetric elements, physical groups can be linked to materials using MATERIAL. Note that if a material is created with the same name as a physical group in the mesh, they will be linked automatically. The MATERIAL keyword in PHYSICAL_GROUP is used to link a physical group in a mesh file and a material in the wasora input file with different names. For non-volumetric elements, boundary conditions can be assigned by using the BC keyword. This should be the last keyword of the line, and any token afterwards is treated specially by the underlying solver (i.e. Fino or milonga).


PHYSICAL_PROPERTY <name> [ <material_name1> <expr1> [ <material_name2> <expr2> ] ... ]

3 Special input distributions


4 Boundary conditions


5 Result functions


6 Wasora keywords

6.1 =

Assign an expression to a variable, a vector or a matrix.

<var>[ [<expr_tmin>, <expr_tmax>] | 
<expr_t> ] = <expr> <vector>(<expr_i>)[<expr_i_min, expr_i_max>] [ [<expr_tmin>, <expr_tmax>] | 
<expr_t> ] = <expr> <matrix>(<expr_i>,<expr_j>)[<expr_i_min, expr_i_max; expr_j_min, expr_j_max>] [ [<expr_tmin>, <expr_tmax>] | 
<expr_t> ] = <expr>

6.2 _.=

Add an equation to the DAE system to be solved in the phase space spanned by PHASE_SPACE.

{ 0[(i[,j]][<imin:imax[;jmin:jmax]>] | <expr1> } .= <expr2>


Catastrophically abort the execution and quit wasora.


Whenever the instruction ABORT is executed, wasora quits without closing files or unlocking shared memory objects. The objective of this instruction is, as illustrated in the examples, either to debug complex input files and check the values of certain variables or to conditionally abort the execution using IF clauses.


Define a scalar alias of an already-defined indentifier.

ALIAS { <new_var_name> IS <existing_object> | <existing_object> AS <new_name> }

The existing object can be a variable, a vector element or a matrix element. In the first case, the name of the variable should be given as the existing object. In the second case, to alias the second element of vector v to the new name new, v(2) should be given as the existing object. In the third case, to alias second element (2,3) of matrix M to the new name new, M(2,3) should be given as the existing object.

6.5 CALL

Call a previously dynamically-loaded user-provided routine.

CALL <name> [ expr_1 expr_2 ... expr_n ]


Explicitly close an already-OPENed file.



Mark a scalar variable, vector or matrix as a constant.

CONST name_1 [ <name_2> ] ... [ <name_n> ]


Give a default value for an optional commandline argument.

DEFAULT_ARGUMENT_VALUE <constant> <string>

If a $n construction is found in the input file but the commandline argument was not given, the default behavior is to fail complaining that an extra argument has to be given in the commandline. With this keyword, a default value can be assigned if no argument is given, thus avoiding the failure and making the argument optional.


Explicitly mark variables, vectors or matrices as “differential” to compute intial conditions of DAE systems.

DIFFERENTIAL { <var_1> <var_2> ... | <vector_1> <vector_2> ... | <matrix_1> <matrix_2> ... }


Ask wasora not to evaluate assignments at parse time.


6.11 FILE

Define a file, either as input or as output, for further usage.

< FILE | OUTPUT_FILE | INPUT_FILE > <name> <printf_format> [ expr_1 expr_2 ... expr_n ] [ INPUT | OUTPUT | MODE <fopen_mode> ] [ OPEN | DO_NOT_OPEN ]

6.12 FIT

Fit a function of one or more arguments to a set of data.

FIT <function_to_be_fitted> TO <function_with_data> VIA <var_1> <var_2> ... <var_n> [ GRADIENT <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_n> ] [ RANGE_MIN <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_n> ] [ RANGE_MAX <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_n> ] [ DELTAEPSREL <expr> ] [ DELTAEPSABS <expr> ] [ MAX_ITER <expr> ] [ VERBOSE ] [ RERUN | DO_NOT_RERUN ]

The function with the data has to be point-wise defined. The function to be fitted hast to be parametrized with at least one of the variables provided after the VIA keyword. Only the names of the functions have to be given. Both functions have to have the same number of arguments. The initial guess of the solution is given by the initial value of the variables listed in the VIA keyword. Analytical expressions for the gradient of the function to be fitted with respect to the parameters to be fitted can be optionally given with the GRADIENT keyword. If none is provided, the gradient will be computed numerically using finite differences. A range over which the residuals are to be minimized can be given with RANGE_MIN and RANGE_MAX. For multidimensional fits, the range is an hypercube. If no range is given, all the definition points of the function witht the data are used for the fit. Convergence can be controlled by given the relative and absolute tolreances with DELTAEPSREL (default 1e-4) and DELTAEPSABS (default 1e-6), and with the maximum number of iterations MAX_ITER (default 100). If the optional keyword VERBOSE is given, some data of the intermediate steps is written in the standard output.


Define a function of one or more variables.

FUNCTION <name>(<var_1>[,var2,...,var_n]) { [ = <expr> | FILE_PATH <file_path> | ROUTINE <name> | | MESH <name> { DATA <new_vector_name> | VECTOR <existing_vector_name> } { NODES | CELLS } | [ VECTOR_DATA <vector_1> <vector_2> ... <vector_n> <vector_n+1> ] } [COLUMNS <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_n> <expr_n+1> ] [ INTERPOLATION { linear | polynomial | spline | spline_periodic | akima | akima_periodic | steffen | nearest | shepard | shepard_kd | bilinear } ] [ INTERPOLATION_THRESHOLD <expr> ] [ SHEPARD_RADIUS <expr> ] [ SHEPARD_EXPONENT <expr> ] [ SIZES <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_n> ] [ X_INCREASES_FIRST <expr> ] [ DATA <num_1> <num_2> ... <num_N> ]

The number of variables n is given by the number of arguments given between parenthesis after the function name. The arguments are defined as new variables if they had not been already defined as variables. If the function is given as an algebraic expression, the short-hand operator := can be used. That is to say, FUNCTION f(x) = x^2 is equivalent to f(x) := x^2. If a FILE_PATH is given, an ASCII file containing at least n+1 columns is expected. By default, the first n columns are the values of the arguments and the last column is the value of the function at those points. The order of the columns can be changed with the keyword COLUMNS, which expects n+1 expressions corresponding to the column numbers. A function of type ROUTINE calls an already-defined user-provided routine using the CALL keyword and passes the values of the variables in each required evaluation as a double * argument. If MESH is given, the definition points are the nodes or the cells of the mesh. The function arguments should be (x), (x,y) or (x,y,z) matching the dimension the mesh. If the keyword DATA is used, a new empty vector of the appropriate size is defined. The elements of this new vector can be assigned to the values of the function at the i-th node or cell. If the keyword VECTOR is used, the values of the dependent variable are taken to be the values of the already-existing vector. Note that this vector should have the size of the number of nodes or cells the mesh has, depending on whether NODES or CELLS is given. If VECTOR_DATA is given, a set of n+1 vectors of the same size is expected. The first n+1 correspond to the arguments and the last one is the function value. Interpolation schemes can be given for either one or multi-dimensional functions with INTERPOLATION. Available schemes for n=1 are:

  • linear
  • polynomial, the grade is equal to the number of data minus one
  • spline, cubic (needs at least 3 points)
  • spline_periodic
  • akima (needs at least 5 points)
  • akima_periodic (needs at least 5 points)
  • steffen, always-monotonic splines-like (available only with GSL >= 2.0)

Default interpolation scheme for one-dimensional functions is (*gsl_interp_linear).

Available schemes for n>1 are:

For n>1, if the euclidean distance between the arguments and the definition points is smaller than INTERPOLATION_THRESHOLD, the definition point is returned and no interpolation is performed. Default value is square root of 9.5367431640625e-07. The initial radius of points to take into account in shepard_kd is given by SHEPARD_RADIUS. If no points are found, the radius is double until at least one definition point is found. The radius is doubled until at least one point is found. Default is 1.0. The exponent of the shepard method is given by SHEPARD_EXPONENT. Default is 2. When requesting bilinear interpolation for n>3, the number of definition points for each argument variable has to be given with SIZES, and wether the definition data is sorted with the first argument changing first (X_INCREASES_FIRST evaluating to non-zero) or with the last argument changing first (zero). The function can be pointwise-defined inline in the input using DATA. This should be the last keyword of the line, followed by N=k\cdot (n+1) expresions giving k definition points: n arguments and the value of the function. Multiline continuation using brackets { and } can be used for a clean data organization. See the examples.


Record the time history of a variable as a function of time.

HISTORY <variable> <function>

6.15 IF

Begin a conditional block.

IF expr
[ ELSE ]


Define whether implicit declaration of variables is allowed or not.


By default, wasora allows variables (but not vectors nor matrices) to be implicitly declared. To avoid introducing errors due to typos, explicit declaration of variables can be forced by giving IMPLICIT NONE. Whether implicit declaration is allowed or explicit declaration is required depends on the last IMPLICIT keyword given, which by default is ALLOWED.


Include another wasora input file.

INCLUDE <file_path> [ FROM <num_expr> ] [ TO <num_expr> ]

Includes the input file located in the string file_path at the current location. The effect is the same as copying and pasting the contents of the included file at the location of the INCLUDE keyword. The path can be relative or absolute. Note, however, that when including files inside IF blocks that instructions are conditionally-executed but all definitions (such as function definitions) are processed at parse-time independently from the evaluation of the conditional. The optional FROM and TO keywords can be used to include only portions of a file.


Define how initial conditions of DAE problems are computed.


In DAE problems, initial conditions may be either:

  • equal to the provided expressions (AS_PROVIDED)
  • the derivatives computed from the provided phase-space variables (FROM_VARIABLES)
  • the phase-space variables computed from the provided derivatives (FROM_DERIVATIVES)

In the first case, it is up to the user to fulfill the DAE system at t = 0. If the residuals are not small enough, a convergence error will occur. The FROM_VARIABLES option means calling IDA’s IDACalcIC routine with the parameter IDA_YA_YDP_INIT. The FROM_DERIVATIVES option means calling IDA’s IDACalcIC routine with the parameter IDA_Y_INIT. Wasora should be able to automatically detect which variables in phase-space are differential and which are purely algebraic. However, the DIFFERENTIAL keyword may be used to explicitly define them. See the (SUNDIALS documentation)[] for further information.


Load a wasora plug-in from a dynamic shared object.

LOAD_PLUGIN { <file_path> | <plugin_name> }

A wasora plugin in the form of a dynamic shared object (i.e. .so) can be loaded either with the LOAD_PLUGIN keyword or from the command line with the -p option. Either a file path or a plugin name can be given. The following locations are tried:

  • the current directory ./
  • the parent directory ../
  • the user’s LD_LIBRARY_PATH
  • the cache file /etc/
  • the directories /lib, /usr/lib, /usr/local/lib

If a wasora plugin was compiled and installed following the make install procedure, the plugin should be loaded by just passing the name to LOAD_PLUGIN.


Load one or more routines from a dynamic shared object.

LOAD_ROUTINE <file_path> <routine_1> [ <routine_2> ... <routine_n> ]

6.21 M4

Call the m4 macro processor with definitions from wasora variables or expressions.

M4 { INPUT_FILE <file_id> | FILE_PATH <file_path> } { OUTPUT_FILE <file_id> | OUTPUT_FILE_PATH <file_path> } [ EXPAND <name> ] ... } [ MACRO <name> [ <format> ] <definition> ] ... }


Define a matrix.

MATRIX <name> ROWS <expr> COLS <expr> [ DATA num_expr_1 num_expr_2 ... num_expr_n ]


Find the combination of arguments that give a (relative) minimum of a function, i.e. run an optimization problem.

MINIMIZE <function> <function> [ METHOD { conjugate_fr | conjugate_pr | vector_bfgs2 | vector_bfgs | steepest_descent | nmsimplex2 | nmsimplex | nmsimplex2rand } [ GRADIENT <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_n> ] [ GUESS <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_n> ] [ MIN <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_n> ] [ MAX <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_n> ] [ STEP <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_n> ] [ VERBOSE ] [ NORERUN ] [ MAX_ITER <expr> ] [ TOL <expr> ] [ GRADTOL <expr> ]


Systematically sweep a zone of the parameter space, i.e. perform a parametric run.

PARAMETRIC <var_1> [ ... <var_n> ] [ TYPE { linear | logarithmic | random | gaussianrandom | sobol | niederreiter | halton | reversehalton } ] [ MIN <num_expr_1> ... <num_expr_n> ] [ MAX <num_expr_1> ... <num_expr_n> ] [ STEP <num_expr_1> ... <num_expr_n> ] [ NSTEPS <num_expr_1> ... <num_expr_n> ] [ OUTER_STEPS <num_expr> ] [ MAX_DAUGHTERS <num_expr> ] [ OFFSET <num_expr> ] [ ADIABATIC ]


Define which variables, vectors and/or matrices belong to the phase space of the DAE system to be solved.

PHASE_SPACE { <vars> | <vectors> | <matrices> }

6.26 PRINT

Print plain-text and/or formatted data to the standard output or into an output file.

PRINT [ FILE <file_id> | FILE_PATH <file_path> ] [ NONEWLINE ] [ SEP <string> ] [ NOSEP ] [ HEADER ] [ SKIP_STEP <expr> ] [ SKIP_STATIC_STEP <expr> ] [ SKIP_TIME <expr> ] [ SKIP_HEADER_STEP <expr> ] [ <object_1> <object_2> ... <object_n> ] [ TEXT <string_1> ... TEXT <string_n> ]

Each argument object that is not a keyword is expected to be part of the output, can be either a matrix, a vector, an scalar algebraic expression. If the given object cannot be solved into a valid matrix, vector or expression, it is treated as a string literal if IMPLICIT is ALLOWED, otherwise a parser error is raised. To explicitly interpret an object as a literal string even if it resolves to a valid numerical expression, it should be prefixed with the TEXT keyword. Hashes # appearing literal in text strings have to be quoted to prevent the parser to treat them as comments within the wasora input file and thus ignoring the rest of the line. Whenever an argument starts with a porcentage sign %, it is treated as a C printf-compatible format definition and all the objects that follow it are printed using the given format until a new format definition is found. The objects are treated as double-precision floating point numbers, so only floating point formats should be given. The default format is "%g". Matrices, vectors, scalar expressions, format modifiers and string literals can be given in any desired order, and are processed from left to right. Vectors are printed element-by-element in a single row. See PRINT_VECTOR to print vectors column-wise. Matrices are printed element-by-element in a single line using row-major ordering if mixed with other objects but in the natural row and column fashion if it is the only given object. If the FILE keyword is not provided, default is to write to stdout. If the NONEWLINE keyword is not provided, default is to write a newline \n character after all the objects are processed. The SEP keywords expects a string used to separate printed objects, the default is a tab ‘DEFAULT_PRINT_SEPARATOR’ character. Use the NOSEP keyword to define an empty string as object separator. If the HEADER keyword is given, a single line containing the literal text given for each object is printed at the very first time the PRINT instruction is processed, starting with a hash # character. If the SKIP_STEP (SKIP_STATIC_STEP)keyword is given, the instruction is processed only every the number of transient (static) steps that results in evaluating the expression, which may not be constant. By default the PRINT instruction is evaluated every step. The SKIP_HEADER_STEP keyword works similarly for the optional HEADER but by default it is only printed once. The SKIP_TIME keyword use time advancements to choose how to skip printing and may be useful for non-constant time-step problems.

Print one or more functions as a table of values of dependent and independent variables.

PRINT_FUNCTION <function_1> [ { function_2 | expr_1 } ... { function_n | expr_n-1 } ] [ FILE <file_id> | FILE_PATH <file_path> ] [ HEADER ] [ MIN <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_m> ] [ MAX <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_m> ] [ STEP <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_m> ] [ NSTEPs <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_m> ] [ FORMAT <print_format> ] [ PHYSICAL_ENTITY <name> ]

Print the elements of one or more vectors.

PRINT_VECTOR [ FILE <file_id> ] FILE_PATH <file_path> ] [ { VERTICAL | HORIZONTAL } ] [ ELEMS_PER_LINE <expr> ] [ FORMAT <print_format> ] <vector_1> [ vector_2 ... vector_n ]

6.29 READ

Read data (variables, vectors o matrices) from files or shared-memory segments.

[ READ | WRITE ] [ SHM <name> ] [ { ASCII_FILE_PATH | BINARY_FILE_PATH } <file_path> ] [ { ASCII_FILE | BINARY_FILE } <identifier> ] [ IGNORE_NULL ] [ object_1 object_2 ... object_n ]


Perform either a wait or a post operation on a named shared semaphore.

[ SEMAPHORE | SEM ] <name> { WAIT | POST }

6.31 SHELL

Execute a shell command.

SHELL <print_format> [ expr_1 expr_2 ... expr_n ]

6.32 SOLVE

Solve a non-linear system of n equations with n unknowns.

SOLVE <n> UNKNOWNS <var_1> <var_2> ... <var_n> RESIDUALS <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_n> ] GUESS <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_n> ] [ METHOD { dnewton | hybrid | hybrids | broyden } ] [ EPSABS <expr> ] [ EPSREL <expr> ] [ MAX_ITER <expr> ] [ VERBOSE ]


Force transient problems to pass through specific instants of time.

TIME_PATH <expr_1> [ <expr_2> [ ... <expr_n> ] ]

The time step dt will be reduced whenever the distance between the current time t and the next expression in the list is greater than dt so as to force t to coincide with the expressions given. The list of expresssions should evaluate to a sorted list of values.

6.34 VAR

Define one or more scalar variables.

VAR <name_1> [ <name_2> ] ... [ <name_n> ]


Define a vector.

VECTOR <name> SIZE <expr> [ DATA <expr_1> <expr_2> ... <expr_n> | FUNCTION_DATA <function> ]


Sort the elements of a vector using a specific numerical order, potentially making the same rearrangement of another vector.


6.37 WRITE

Write data (variables, vectors o matrices) to files or shared-memory segments. See the READ keyword for usage details.

7 Fino variables

7.1 delta_sigma_max

The uncertainty of the maximum Von Mises stress \sigma of the elastic problem. Not to be confused with the maximum uncertainty of the Von Mises stress.

7.2 displ_max

The module of the maximum displacement of the elastic problem.

7.3 displ_max_x

The x coordinate of the maximum displacement of the elastic problem.

7.4 displ_max_y

The y coordinate of the maximum displacement of the elastic problem.

7.5 displ_max_z

The z coordinate of the maximum displacement of the elastic problem.

7.6 fino_abstol

Absolute tolerance of the linear solver, as passed to PETSc’s [KSPSetTolerances](http: Default 1e-50.

7.7 fino_divtol

Divergence tolerance, as passed to PETSc’s [KSPSetTolerances](http: Default 1e+4.

7.8 fino_gamg_threshold

Relative threshold to use for dropping edges in aggregation graph for the [Geometric Algebraic Multigrid Preconditioner](http: as passed to PETSc’s [PCGAMGSetThreshold](http: A value of 0.0 means keep all nonzero entries in the graph; negative means keep even zero entries in the graph. Default 0.01.

7.9 fino_iterations

This variable contains the actual number of iterations used by the solver. It is set after FINO_STEP.

7.10 fino_max_iterations

Number of maximum iterations before diverging, as passed to PETSc’s [KSPSetTolerances](http: Default 10000.

7.11 fino_penalty_weight

The weight w used when setting multi-freedom boundary conditions. Higher values mean better precision in the constrain but distort the matrix condition number. Default is 1e8.

7.12 fino_reltol

Relative tolerance of the linear solver, as passed to PETSc’s [KSPSetTolerances](http: Default 1e-6.

7.13 fino_residual_norm

This variable contains the residual obtained by the solver. It is set after FINO_STEP.

7.14 lambda

Requested eigenvalue. It is equal to 1.0 until FINO_STEP is executed.

7.15 memory

Maximum resident set size (global memory used), in bytes.

7.16 memory_available

Total available memory, in bytes.

7.17 memory_petsc

Maximum resident set size (memory used by PETSc), in bytes.

7.18 nodes_rough

The number of nodes of the mesh in ROUGH mode.

7.19 petsc_flops

Number of floating point operations performed by PETSc/SLEPc.

7.20 sigma_max

The maximum von Mises stress \sigma of the elastic problem.

7.21 sigma_max_x

The x coordinate of the maximum von Mises stress \sigma of the elastic problem.

7.22 sigma_max_y

The x coordinate of the maximum von Mises stress \sigma of the elastic problem.

7.23 sigma_max_z

The x coordinate of the maximum von Mises stress \sigma of the elastic problem.

7.24 strain_energy

The strain energy stored in the solid, computed as 1/2 \cdot \vec{u}^T K \vec{u} where \vec{u} is the displacements vector and K is the stiffness matrix.

7.25 time_cpu_build

CPU time insumed to build the problem matrices, in seconds.

7.26 time_cpu_solve

CPU time insumed to solve the problem, in seconds.

7.27 time_cpu_stress

CPU time insumed to compute the stresses from the displacements, in seconds.

7.28 time_petsc_build

CPU time insumed by PETSc to build the problem matrices, in seconds.

7.29 time_petsc_solve

CPU time insumed by PETSc to solve the eigen-problem, in seconds.

7.30 time_petsc_stress

CPU time insumed by PETSc to compute the stresses, in seconds.

7.31 time_wall_build

Wall time insumed to build the problem matrices, in seconds.

7.32 time_wall_solve

Wall time insumed to solve the problem, in seconds.

7.33 time_wall_stress

Wall time insumed to compute the stresses, in seconds.

7.34 time_wall_total

Wall time insumed to initialize, build and solve, in seconds. CPU time insumed to initialize, build and solve, in seconds. CPU time insumed by PETSc to initialize, build and solve, in seconds.

7.35 T_max

The maximum temperature T_\text{max} of the thermal problem.

7.36 T_min

The minimum temperature T_\text{min} of the thermal problem.

7.37 u_at_displ_max

The x component u of the maximum displacement of the elastic problem.

7.38 u_at_sigma_max

The x component u of the displacement where the maximum von Mises stress \sigma of the elastic problem is located.

7.39 v_at_displ_max

The y component v of the maximum displacement of the elastic problem.

7.40 v_at_sigma_max

The y component v of the displacement where the maximum von Mises stress \sigma of the elastic problem is located.

7.41 w_at_displ_max

The z component w of the maximum displacement of the elastic problem.

7.42 w_at_sigma_max

The z component w of the displacement where the maximum von Mises stress \sigma of the elastic problem is located.